Voevodins' Library _ "Focus Groups" 3rd edition / Richard A. Krueger & Mary Anne Casey ... Interview, People, Discussion, Decision Making, Development, Single-Category Design, Multiple-Category Design, Double-Layer Design, Broad-Involvement Design, Audience, Written Plan, Questioning Route, Categories of Questions, Opening Questions, Introductory Questions, Transition Questions, Key Questions, Ending Questions, Campaign, Strategies for Selecting Participants, Sampling Procedures for Focus Groups, Moderating Skills, Moderator, Discussion, Head Nodding, Question, Analysis Strategies, Long-Table Approach, Using the Computer to Help Manage the Data, Rapid Approach, Sound Approach, Principles of Reporting, Written Reports, Narrative Report, Top-Line Report, Bulleted Report, Report Letter to Participants, Oral Reports, Styles of Focus Group Research, Telephone Focus Groups, Internet Focus Groups, Media Focus Groups Voevodin's Library: Interview, People, Discussion, Decision Making, Development, Single-Category Design, Multiple-Category Design, Double-Layer Design, Broad-Involvement Design, Audience, Written Plan, Questioning Route, Categories of Questions, Opening Questions, Introductory Questions, Transition Questions, Key Questions, Ending Questions, Campaign, Strategies for Selecting Participants, Sampling Procedures for Focus Groups, Moderating Skills, Moderator, Discussion, Head Nodding, Question, Analysis Strategies, Long-Table Approach, Using the Computer to Help Manage the Data, Rapid Approach, Sound Approach, Principles of Reporting, Written Reports, Narrative Report, Top-Line Report, Bulleted Report, Report Letter to Participants, Oral Reports, Styles of Focus Group Research, Telephone Focus Groups, Internet Focus Groups, Media Focus Groups


In English
 

FOCUS GROUPS
-3rd Edition-

A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR APPLIED RESEARCH
RICHARD A. KRUEGER & MARY ANNE CASEY

"The book is packed with sound advice and detailed approaches, making this method a success.... If you are even thinking about doing any kind of group interview, this is the place to start."
-Nursing Times

The book considered "the standard" for learning how to conduct a focus group has been completely revised and given a new look that includes playful illustrations and more "how-tos" than ever before.

ISBN: 0-7619-2070-6 hardcover
ISBN: 0-7619-2071-4 paperback

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Contents

Preface
How Is This Edition Different?
What Have We Learned?
About the Icons
Acknowledgments

1. Overview of Focus Groups
The Focus Group Is a Special Type of Group
The Story Behind Focus Group Interviews
Why Do Focus Groups Work?
Characteristics of Focus Groups
Focus Groups Involve People
The People Possess Certain Characteristics
Focus Groups Provide Qualitative Data
Focus Groups Have a Focused Discussion

The Uses of Focus Groups
Decision Making
Product or Program Development
Customer Satisfaction
Planning and Goal Setting
Needs Assessment
Quality Movements
Understanding Employee Concerns
Policy Making and Testing
A Primary or Secondary Research Tool

SUMMARY

2. Planning the Focus Group Study
Determining the Purpose
Deciding If Focus Group Interviewing Is the Right Method
When to Use Focus Group Interviews
When Not to Use Focus Group Interviews

Identifying Information-Rich Participants
Determining How Many Groups to Conduct
Balancing the Design With the Resources Available
Design Options
Single-Category Design
Multiple-Category Design
Double-Layer Design
Broad-Involvement Design

Listening to Your Target Audience
Developing a Written Plan
SUMMARY

3. Developing a Questioning Route
Qualities of Good Questioyns
Sound Conversational
Use Words the Participants Would Use When Talking About the Issue
Are Easy to Say
Are Clear
Are Usually Short
Are Usually Open-Ended
Are Usually One-Dimensional
Include Clear, Well-Thought-Out Directions

Qualities of a Good Questioning Route
Has an Easy Beginning
Is Sequenced
Moves From General to Specific
Uses the Time Available Wisely

Categories of Questions
Opening Questions
Introductory Questions
Transition Questions
Key Questions
Ending Questions

Questions That Engage Participants
Listing Things
Rating Items
Choosing Among Alternatives-Pilot Testing Ideas
Picture Sort
Drawing a Picture
Using Your Imagination
Developing a Campaign
Doing Something Before the Focus Group

The Process We Use to Develop a Questioning Route
Step 1. Brainstorming
Step 2. Phrasing the Questions
Step 3. Sequencing the Questions
Step 4. Estimating Time for Questions
Step 5. Getting Feedback From Others
Step 6. Testing the Questions

Changing Questions: The Importance of Consistency
SUMMARY

4. Participants in a Focus Group
The Purpose Drives the Study
The Composition of the Group
The Size of a Focus Group
Strategies for Finding Participants
The List
Piggyback Focus Groups
On Location
Nominations
Screening/Selection Services
Random Telephone Screening
Ads or Announcements in Newspapers and Bulletin Boards

Strategies for Selecting Participants
Set Exact Specifications-The Screens
Maintain Control of Selection Process
Use the Resources of the Sponsoring Organization in Recruiting
Beware of Bias
Randomly Select From Your Pool
Balance Cost and Quality
Nonusers Can Be Difficult to Locate
Users May Differ in Ways That Can Affect the Study
No Selection Process Is Perfect

Sampling Procedures for Focus Groups
Getting People to Attend Focus Groups
1. Set the Meeting Dates, Times, Locations
2. Make Personal Contacts With Potential Participants
3. Send a Personalized Follow-Up Letter
4. Make a Reminder Phone

Contact Incentives to Participate

SUMMARY
Practice Hint 4.1: Telephone Screening Questionnaire
Practice Hint 4.2: Follow-Up Recruitment Letter

5. Moderating Skills
What's Needed When Planning
Selecting the Right Moderator
The Moderating Team

What's Needed Just Before the Group
Mental Preparation
Pre-Session Strategy
Snacks and Meals

What's Needed During the Group
Recording the Group Discussion
Beginning the Focus Group Discussion
Anticipating the Flow of the Discussion
Two Essential Techniques: The Pause and the Probe
Experts, Dominant Talkers, Shy Participants, and Ramblers
Responding to Participants' Comments
Head Nodding
Short Verbal Responses
Concluding the Focus Group

Responding to Participants' Questions
Questions Before the Focus Group Begins
Questions After the Introduction
Questions During the Focus Group
Questions at the Conclusion of the Group

Be Ready for the Unexpected
Hazardous Weather Occurs Just Hours Before the Meeting
Nobody Shows Up
Only a Few Attend
The Meeting Place Is Inadequate
Participants Bring Children
Participants Bring Other Adults
Other Uninvited People Show Up
The Group Doesn't Want to Talk
The Group Gets So Involved That The Members Don't Want to Leave
The Early Questions Take Too Much Time,
Leaving Little Time to Ask the Final Questions

SUMMARY
Practice Hint 5.1: Checklist for Focus Group Interviews
Practice Hint 5.2: Responsibilities of Assistant Moderators

6. Analyzing Focus Group Results
The Purpose Drives Analysis
Understanding Analysis
Analysis Is Systematic and Sequential
Analysis Is Verifiable
Analysis Is a Continuing Process
Setting the Stage for Analysis

What Gets Used as the Basis for Analysis
Transcript Based
Tape Based-Abridged Transcript
Note Based
Memory Based

Analysis Strategies
Long-Table Approach
Using the Computer to Help Manage the Data
Rapid Approach
Sound Approach

Some Tips to Consider
Know What Is Needed in Your Research Environment
Being There Is Best
Not Everything Is Worthy of Analysis or Can Be Analyzed
Analysis Is Based on Pattern Identification
Beware of Personal Bias or Preexisting Opinions About the Topic
You Are the Voice of the Participants
Visual Representation of Reality
Leave the Numbers Out

SUMMARY
Practice Hint 6.1: Transcribing Focus Groups

7. Reporting Five Principles of Reporting
Know the Point and Get to It Quickly
Clear, Effective Writing Takes Time
Provide Enlightenment
Involve People Throughout the Study
Use Multiple Reporting Strategies

Written Reports
Study Popular Writing
Realistically Assess Your Own Ability
Find What Helps You Write
Edit Ruthlessly and Plan for Multiple Revisions
Dazzle With Your Ideas-Not With Fancy Words
Make the Report Visually Attractive

Types of Written Reports
Narrative Report
Top-Line Report
Bulleted Report
Report Letter to Participants

Oral Reports
Allow Time for Questions
Cite the Most Important Things First
Be Careful of Ho-Hum Syndrome
Limit Your Points
Use Visuals and Quotes
Tell Your Audience What You Want Them to Do
Select the Right Reporter

Electronic Reporting
SUMMARY

8. Styles of Focus Group Research
Market Research Approach
Academic Research Approach
Public/Nonprofit Approach
Participatory Approach
SUMMARY

9. Adapting Focus Groups to Audiences and Environments
Focus Groups With Existing Groups and Organizations
Focus Group Interviews With Young People
Focus Groups With Ethnic or Minority Racial Groups
Focus Groups With International Groups and Organizations
SUMMARY

10. Modifications of Focus Groups
Periodically Repeated Focus Groups
Two Moderators
Telephone Focus Groups
Internet Focus Groups
Media Focus Groups
Issues When Adapting Focus Groups
SUMMARY

11. Answering Questions About the Quality of Focus Group Research
Is This Scientific Research?
How Do You Know Your Findings Aren't Just Your Subjective Opinions?
Isn't This Soft Research?
How Do You Determine Validity?
Can You Generalize?
Why Don't You Use Random Sampling?
How Big Is the Sample? or, How Can You Make Those Statements With Such a Small Sample?

References
About the Authors